People & Place

Rob Townsend's OCA Learning Log


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Assignment 5: progress so far

My chosen theme for assignment 5 is “Disappearing Britain”. The full brief I’ve written for myself can be found here, but the short version is: things you used to see in the past that you don’t see much any more, that are uniquely (or at least identifiably) British.

This is a summary of my progress so far…

Subjects

I had a few ideas going into the exercise. Not quite enough, mind you. I’m hoping that inspiration will strike as I go along (it has once or twice already).

So far I have taken pictures I’m happy with of:

  • Red phone boxes (LOTS of photos of these… keep seeing them everywhere I go… maybe they’re not as rare as I thought!)
  • Coal bunker
  • Milk bottle on a doorstep
  • Cobbled street
  • GPO marker post
  • Steel dustbin
  • Flat cap

I’ve found and taken pics of the following, but would like to go back and reshoot (lighting, composition):

  • Rotary dial phone
  • Milk float
  • Butcher’s shop
  • Bingo hall (stumbled upon!)
  • Sweet shop display
  • Original design Mini

I’d still like to find:

  • Pint pot with handle
  • Policeman’s helmet
  • Rag and bone man

Style

I’m very mindful that all of these objects have been photographed before! The (fictional) magazine article calls for distinctive treatments, otherwise they could just use library shots.

With this in mind I’m working on creative execution approaches – close-ups, almost abstracted yet recognisable visual cues that anyone of a certain age would recognise. I’m aiming for more interesting angles and framing that you might get in existing shots of these objects.

I’m also concentrating on the colours, where relevant (e.g. the red of the phone box) and looking for blocks of colour that typify the subject.

Through a combination of these approaches, I’m hoping that each image will evoke a memory of the subject in question.

Research and inspiration

To get ‘in the zone’ for this project I’ve been revisiting a few books of mine: ‘Portrait Of An Era: An Illustrated History of Britain’ [1], ‘Britain’s First Photo Album’ [2] and ‘Retronaut’ [3]. These broadly cover, in their own ways, photographic histories of Britain, and gave me some pointers on subject matter. I’ve also been a frequent visitor to the local flea market, antique shops and charity shops! And finally (perhaps least obviously) while I’ve been out shooting, I’ve been listening to the audiobook of Bill Bryson’s ‘Notes From A Small Island’ [4] as this is kind of a love letter to a changing Britain as seen through the eyes of an outsider.

In terms of photographic inspiration, there are four particular photographers that keep coming back to mind:

Saul Leiter, for his painterly use of colour and abstraction

Robin Maddock, in particular his latest project ‘III’ [5], which is what you might call ‘street abstract’ in style… it’s very different to what I’m aiming to achieve in some ways – it’s US cities, black and white, bordering on abstract and with a specific thematic quirk (all images have a while ball, sheet of paper of milk in them… makes more sense when you see it). The reason it’s inspiring is that he’s reducing a place down to small finite slices and still manages to evoke a sense of the place, which is something I want to achieve – albeit with a different aesthetic

Robert Frank, specifically ‘The Americans’ [6], for his ability to get over the character of an entire, vast nation with a small number of well-selected images; in a similar way I am aiming to capture a ‘dying’ (or at least changing) national character

Martin Parr, in particular ‘The Last Resort’ [7], for his eye for peculiarly British details

As a side note, I’m finding that I can be inspired by photographers without wishing to emulate their style; increasingly it’s an understanding of what they were trying to achieve rather than specifically how they did it.

  1. Gardiner, J et al (2011) Portrait of an era: an illustrated history of Britain. London: Reader’s Digest
  2. Sackett, T. (2012) Britain’s first photo album. London: BBC Books
  3. Wild, C (2014) Retronaut. Washington: National Geographic
  4. Bryson, B (1996) Notes from a small island. London: Corgi
  5. Maddock, R (2014) III. London: Trolley Books
  6. Frank, R (2008) The Americans: special edition. Gottingen: Steidl
  7. Parr, M. (2012) The last resort. Stockport: Dewi Lewis

 


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Assignment 5: (in)decision time

Hmmm… I’ve been mulling over the subject for Assignment 5 for a few weeks now and I need to make a decision and crack on! I came up with a long list a while ago and narrowed it down to a handful of candidate ideas. I think I’ve since got it down to two options: one centred around People and one around Place. My problem is that I am completely flitting between these two totally different ideas on a daily basis! I can quite clearly visualise what the outputs should look like, and each of them attracts in its own way. But I need to settle on one and get shooting! So I decided to write up a list of pros and cons and stare at it for a while…

1. People idea: “The Act of Observation”

Background:

I want to explore one aspect of portraiture that fascinates me: the fact that the sitter is inherently self-conscious of the portrait being taken, and the difficulty in achieving a natural and ‘honest’ depiction of the person (‘the act of observation changes that which is observed’ and all that).

Premise:

The concept here is that I will get portrait subjects to sit for me in a simple home studio setup (white background, simple lighting, headshot only – that kind of thing). I will take two or three different types of portrait of each, in a combination of the following techniques (to be confirmed):

  • Subject keep eyes closed and relaxes, thus doesn’t know when the photo is being taken
  • Subject is in darkness and sits very still, and a long exposure photo is taken
  • Subject sees self in mirror positioned by camera and chooses when the shutter clicks themselves, by way of a remote shutter release (taking the ‘self-consciousness’ aspect to its logical conclusion)

I’ll then show the subject the three portraits and get their opinion on which they believe is the truest depiction of them.

Why I should do this:

  • Portraiture really isn’t my strong suit – but I sometimes feel the need to push myself out of my comfort zone – unfinished business
  • It’s more creative than idea #2 and my Art of Photography feedback gave me a low score for creativity – so I know I need to work on this
  • It’s potentially quite interesting and insightful for me on a learning level

Why I shouldn’t do this:

  • Portraiture really isn’t my strong suit – so I should work more closely in line with my own developing style – the final P&P assignment might not be the best place for experimentation outside my comfort zone!
  • Generally I’m less enthused about ‘posed’ photography vs ‘found’ photography
  • I’m not sure how many subjects I can gather for this
  • I’m not sure I’ve got (or am able to invest in) the right kind of lighting equipment to do this well
  • I can’t quite make it fit the assignment requirement that a ‘notional client’ could commission someone to do this! Who or why would anyone want images like this? Apart from a curious photographer doing it as an objective in itself…

2. Place idea: “Disappearing Britain”

Background:

This came to mind from the bringing together of a few thoughts from the last two assignments and general research. First, the idea of photography as a proxy for memory – capturing things now to remember later. Second, the idea of trying to capture a whole, quite diverse nation in images (à la Robert Frank with The Americans). Third, the notion that it’s possible to give a sense of a place with quite impressionistic, almost abstract images (partly inspired by Saul Leiter’s 1950s New York work [1] and Robin Maddock’s recent project ‘III’ shot in California [2]). These strands coalesced into a coherent idea when I snapped a row of red telephone boxes in central London a couple of weeks ago.

Premise:

This would be a series of images capturing ‘icons of Britishness’ that were around when I was growing up, that for reasons of progress (technological, economic, societal) are becoming obsolete. The set would form a kind of virtual museum capturing exhibits before extinction. The fragments would build to up to a whole picture that evokes a Britain just disappearing in our lifetime. Examples are:

  • Street furniture: notably the red telephone box, but also old-fashioned wooden litter bins, big free-standing charity collection boxes (guide dogs etc, you know the kind of thing), coal bunkers outside houses
  • Professions/shops: milkman, coal delivery man, rag and bone man, old-style butcher’s, barbers, traditional sweet shop (jars in window)
  • Vehicles: old-style Mini, milk float, coal lorry
  • Objects: milk bottles, pint pots with handles, flat cap

Why I should do this:

  • All my assignments so far have had people in them and this would be an interesting exercise in evoking the sense of place with objects alone
  • It plays to some of my strengths (or at least my preferences) in terms of composition/geometry and use of strong colours
  • As mentioned above, I much prefer ‘found’ subjects to ‘posed’ subjects
  • I can easily imagine the notional client and the brief (magazine article, book illustrations, calendar etc)

Why I shouldn’t do this:

  • Not particularly inherently creative – I’d have to bring the creativity in each shot
  • I might not be able to find the examples in real life to match the visualisations in my head

Decision time

At the moment I’m leaning towards number 2. Well, I am today anyway. I think I’ll email my tutor for her input…

  1. Taubhorn, I and Woischnik, B. (2012). Saul Leiter. Hamburg: Kehrer Verlag
  2. Maddock, R. (2012). III. London: Trolley Books


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Assignment 5: brainstorming with myself

Assignment 5 is the ‘design your own assignment’ assignment…

First decide on a notional client. Choose the kind of client (newspaper, magazine, text book publisher, advertising agency, television graphics, etc.), the purpose of the assignment (educational, informational, promotional) and how the images will be used (to illustrate a story, to sell a product etc). You choose.

You then need to imagine what the basic brief would be, which will mean thinking from the other side of the fence — what someone commissioning a photographer might want. Write yourself the brief so that you can refer back to it.

Having assigned yourself the brief, you now need to complete it. You need to submit between 8– 12 photographs. Accompany the final images with a short written assessment. This should include:

  • the ‘client briefing’ that you gave yourself
  • a statement of how you set about planning the photography
  • how well you succeeded, including the difficulties and opportunities you encountered that you had not anticipated at the outset.

I read ahead to Assignment 5 a while ago, so I’ve been mulling it over in the back of my mind for several weeks now. Whilst working through the latter stages of Assignment 4 I started jotting down ideas. I’ve previously struggled with the keeping of physical notes, as I tend to work digitally for almost everything I do… but I bit the bullet and invested in a pocket notebook for the specific purpose of capturing ideas.

Notes

Notes

The long list of ideas is as follows; this was freeform thinking and at this stage unencumbered by any kind of selection criteria or even rationalisation – this came afterwards. I also didn’t really think about the format/brief upfront; I figured that if a concept was strong enough, I could post-justify that someone would commission me to do it!

To start with, in no particular order (broadly the order they came to mind):-

  • My old bosses
  • Second World War enthusiasts
  • Local people in my home town
  • People who’ve moved to the UK for a job
  • Local artists in their studios
  • Eyes closed portraits
  • Portraits where subject sees themselves in a mirror
  • Composite portraits (same face, different expressions, merged image)
  • Richmond Riverside boat sheds
  • Illustrate local newspaper headlines
  • Disappearing icons of Britishness (phone boxes etc)

Some time after having each idea I thought about why I was attracted to it; it wasn’t always immediately obvious, but over time I spotted some threads emerging. The more detailed musings below are grouped into three broad categories:

  1. Thematic portraits
  2. Conceptual portraits
  3. Place as subject

First, a note on portraits generally:

It’s interesting that the majority of ideas I’ve had so far are portrait-based – I didn’t actually enjoy the portrait section of the course much! It was very much outside my comfort zone, and not what I’d really consider to a core part of my evolving personal style. However, part of me thinks I should go back and push myself again – unfinished business?

The flipside is that this final P&P assignment might not be the place to revisit what I know is a weakness of mine… that instead I should play to my strengths / my developing style…?

1. Thematic portraits

Most of my initial ideas were centred around a thematically-linked series of subjects. In almost all cases (all bar the WW2 reenactors) there is an element of me and my own identity playing a part in my choice of subject. This may seem egotistical but by the same token, I think it’s important to have a connection with the subject, a point of view, and indeed a message one is trying to convey.

  • Old bosses:
    • Pure self-obsession! I think I wanted to show them all how I’ve changed since I worked for them, however many years ago
    • This one fails the test of: who would commission me to do this?
    • So I ruled this one out
  • Local artists:
    • This seemed to be a good potential crossover between People and Place, on two levels: (a) studio as place; and (b) artists who choose the local area as their subject matter
    • Thinking about this and visualising how the sessions might go, I realised that I was particularly looking forward to asking the artists about their inspirations, their working approach, what they get out of creating their art…
    • In other words, I was curious about my own developing creative experience and looking to artists (albeit in different fields) for insights
    • Downside: I don’t know that many artists! I know a few but would mostly be relying on strangers as subjects – and I’m not wholly comfortable with that
    • Also, any insights I gain from them won’t be inherently depicted in the photos – I’m not writing an interview-based feature, it’s a photo assignment
    • Potential format: magazine article?
  • People who’ve moved to the UK:
    • This occurred to me as I’m currently working onsite for a global business that has a very multi-national workforce; based in London, I work with people from all over Europe, North America, South America, Africa and Asia
    • My thinking was that I’d get each subject to pose with a possession that reminds them of home
    • This would be exploring the concept of identity and to what extent it is related to where you come from / where you live now
    • The underlying attraction of this was that I’ve been in their shoes – I’ve worked abroad for long stretches (and I’ve worked away from home, albeit mostly within the UK, for almost the last three years) – so there’s a sense of dislocation that I identify with, and I’m interested in how other people cope with that
    • Potential downsides: whether I can be creative enough in the execution; whether the people and their possessions are inherently interesting photographically
    • Potential format: internal comms campaign for my client, to encourage people moving between countries
  • Local people in my home town:
    • Here I had the format idea first: a calendar, aimed at residents of the town (Pickering)
    • A selection of ages from kids to OAPs, pictured in their home, workplace or their favourite part of town
    • I guess here I was thinking (quite unimaginatively) of shooting portraits of people I already know!
    • The idea encompasses both People and Place, so it has that in its favour
    • But I think I’ve ruled it out as being too uncreative
  • Second World War enthusiasts:
    • This sprung to mind largely as a coincidence in timing – Pickering has an annual ‘Wartime Weekend’ festival in min-October, and the town fills up with enthusiasts and re-enactors in period costume
    • Could be a mix of posed portraits and candid shots of individuals and groups
    • The format could be a ‘subculture’-type magazine article on the phenomenon of wartime nostalgia enthusiasts
    • I reckon I’ll shoot the weekend anyway (weather permitting) and maybe consider it a fallback option, depending on the quality of the images

2. Conceptual portraits

In my attempts to be more creative (a theme in my AOP feedback) I started thinking about portrait projects where the link isn’t the subject matter but the approach/technique employed. In all of these ideas I was exploring the concept of self-identity (or rather the projection of identity) in portraiture, in one way or another. The tricky aspects of all three of these ideas: technical ability (especially re lighting); and how to work backwards into a brief! i.e. who would commission me to do one of these, and why…

  • Eyes closed portraits:
    • My experience is that portrait sitters put on a pose when they know you’re taking their photo, so you never get a ‘true’ and honest depiction of their ‘normal self’… by removing the visual cue of the camera shutter action, the subject won’t know when you’re taking the picture, and my theory is that you would get a more natural-looking result!
    • … albeit without the main expressive feature of the facial portrait, the eyes
    • So a bit of a gamble, this one
  • Mirror portraits:
    • Opposite idea to the last one: portraits where the sitter sees themselves in a mirror mounted in same focal place as camera lens – and they say when they want you to take the picture
    • This way I would be exploring the flip side of the eyes-closed idea – the most ‘artificial’ poses may result here
    • Could combine with the above, to produce pairs of portraits, compare-and-contrast style?
  • Composite portraits:
    • This is born of the observation that people’s faces can actually look different from photo to photo – the split-second capture of an expression that may not bear much resemblance to how the subject normally looks (the “that doesn’t look like me!” reaction you sometimes get)
    • The – admittedly high concept – idea is to take a series of headshots per subject, with differing facial expressions (mainly around the eyes and the mouth) and merge them in post-processing into a single image with different expressions on
    • I can visualise this really well – but can I execute?! I need to do a practice shoot

3. Place as subject

A few of the ideas were much more centred around a place as the subject. This may be too much of an overlap with the last two assignments, so if I go down this road I need to make sure it’s taking a different angle.

  • Richmond Riverside boat sheds:
    • A fairly straightforward (boring?) idea that actually could just have easily been done for the last assignment
    • I think in writing this up I’ve ruled this one out as being too unimaginative
  • Illustrate local newspaper headlines:
    • The idea here was to see if I could evoke the feel of a place simply by taking a random copy of the local newspaper and coming up with images (staged? randomly spotted?) that matched the headlines
    • The idea has been tested briefly by buying local paper… and to be honest the headlines were far too dull/specific to work for this concept
    • So I’ve ruled this out as well… it might have worked if I lived somewhere more interesting!
  • Disappearing icons of Britishness:
    • This was inspired by a recent pic I took of a row of red phone boxes in central London
    • I was thinking about the things that I used to see more of when I was younger, that I’m realising are becoming obsolete
    • Other examples: milk bottles, coal bunkers, drinking fountains, pint pots etc
    • This one appeals to me as I’d be attempting to capture the spirit a whole country in a dozen pics (à la Martin Parr / Robert Frank)
    • Also it would be an exploration of memory through photography; kind of a “last chance to see” / capture it now so I can remember it later feeling, if that makes sense
    • This, of all the ideas, could lend itself to a more creative execution – close-ups, almost abstracted yet recognisable visual cues that anyone of a certain age would recognise
    • I can imagine the kind of magazine feature that these images could accompany

 

That’s all I’m going to write up for now. Just pouring my thoughts out on my long list has been quite tiring!

Next I need to narrow the ideas down a bit (my current front-runners are in green), then maybe try some test shots.

I also need to read up on photographic research techniques, make sure I’m not missing any tricks.


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Assignment 4: prep – revisiting previous studies

I’ve done a lot of thinking, reading and researching on how one might be able to evoke a ‘sense of place’ as a photographer. I realised early on that a lot of the exhibitions, books and photographers that I’d enjoyed and blogged about last year as part of the Art of Photography course were very much about places, and to varying degrees of success they managed to communicate a strong sense of the place being examined. I’ve revisited these and can summarise what I’ve learned in this research.

Robert Frank: The Americans [1]

Parade, Hoboken NJ © Robert Frank 1955

Parade, Hoboken NJ © Robert Frank 1955

Perhaps the most famous place-centric photo collection of the 20th century, The Americans takes the unenviable task of trying to depict one of the biggest and most populated places on earth. Whilst it’s difficult to encapsulate what defines such a vast and varied country – east and west coasts are very different, the midwest is something else again, specific cities have very distinctive identities – Frank did it very successfully, by identifying what is common to the multitude of cities and towns he visited.

His use of recurring motifs is key to communicating the mood: specific icons of Americana – the stars and stripes, diners, jukeboxes, big automobiles – repeat throughout the book like a chorus, bringing a backbone of unity to what could otherwise have been a disparate collection of images. He shows both the breadth of the country and what unites its people beneath the surface.

He is holding a mirror up to an entire nation, seeing it as only an outsider can (he was Swiss). He captured a mood, and it wasn’t wholly positive. Several images allude to the racial segregation that was still being suffered by minorities in the 1950s. A couple of less obvious thematic elements become apparent on closer examination: death is depicted or alluded to in several images; religious imagery, specifically the crucifix, makes a few appearances.

Martin Parr: The Last Resort [2]

New Brighton, © Martin Parr 1985

New Brighton, © Martin Parr 1985

Much of what has been said and written about The Last Resort centres on the style, the use of strong colours and daytime flash, quite unusual at a time when ‘documentary photography’ was predominantly black and white. However, what I was particularly looking for when revisiting the book was how Parr gets over the ambience of New Brighton as a place.

The colour aesthetic is a big part of it – it’s a garish place and saturated colours help to get that across. But I think the way he really gets across the feel of the place is through his selection of subjects and shots – he may deny this was his intent, but it feels like he chose to emphasise (stopping short of exaggeration, I think) details that showed the place in a certain way – downmarket, scruffy yet an improvement to the regular lives of visitors (it’s almost as if he’s saying “imagine what their lives are like the rest of the year if THIS is considered a holiday!”).

An unkind interpretation would be that this is a kind of ‘class tourism’, or even treating the subjects as some kind of anthropological study. However, coming from the class and generation that had holidays like this in places like this, I’d hope that he recognised the warmth and happiness with which families did genuinely enjoy holidays like this in places like New Brighton.

Like Frank, he has an outsider’s eye that simplifies and symbolises. It’s unfortunate that the lingering motif for me was overflowing litter – but he chose this final selection of images for a reason: this is how he saw New Brighton. He makes the place come alive on the page by focusing on images that matched his vision.

Tony Ray-Jones & Martin Parr: Only In England exhibition

Blackpool © Tony Ray-Jones 1968

Blackpool © Tony Ray-Jones 1968

This show at the Media Space in London was in three parts: a selection of images from Ray-Jones from his collection on English seaside resorts in the 1960s, posthumously published as ‘A Day Off’; a revival of Parr’s early b/w work on the Methodist community in Hebden Bridge, clearly influenced by Ray-Jones; and a Parr-curated new selection of rarely-seen images from the Ray-Jones archive.

The Ray-Jones shots in the first and third sections are fantastic examples of evoking a place and in particular a time. The seaside holidays enjoyed in the 1960s seemed to be a world away from the garish 1980s of The Last Resort – he employed more humour than Parr, gave over more of a sense of mild eccentricity – what one online reviewer called “the gentle madness that overtakes people when they feel they can relax and be their true selves”. Once again, a key aspect of Ray-Jones’ way of seeing the place and the people is that of the (in his case, semi-) outsider; though English himself, he’d spent many years in New York before coming back to see the old place with a NYC street photographer’s eye.

Parr’s series on the Methodist communities in West Yorkshire in the 1970s (published as The Non-Confirmists) takes on a more targeted subject and focuses more on little peculiarities that make these people stand out slightly from the norms of mainstream society. It’s this focus on the small differences that helps to evoke the nature of the community. Once again (there’s a pattern here) Parr was an incomer to the community and so could see it in a way that long-term resident might not have been able to.

Mark Neville: Deeds Not Words exhibition

Irn Bru Display, Corby © Mark Neville, 2010

Irn Bru Display, Corby © Mark Neville 2010

An interesting project: photography as activism. Whilst the real story Neville was telling was about the legacy of deformity from contaminated land, the backdrop is of Corby as a community. The two aspects of the collection didn’t sit together that well for me, I found it a little jarring (maybe that’s the intention). With its strong Scottish heritage and culture, Corby is sufficiently interesting in its own right to have been the subject of a photo essay, and the activism narrative that overlaid it moved it into a different direction.

Like Parr in his Hebden Bridge series, Neville is good at picking out the slightly incongruous details that mark out the place as distinctive: the child in front of a huge supermarket display of Irn Bru for example.

Mass Observation exhibition

The fundamental point of the Mass Observation initiative was to record life in Britain – a broad remit indeed. Photography wasn’t considered a key aspect of the ongoing experiment though, merely a form of visual note-taking to validate the written reporting. What emerges in the photography (much of it by Humphrey Spender) is more of an evocation of time than place; it’s a time-capsule of post-war Britain that illustrates the maxim that ‘the past is a foreign country’. It’s recognisable as Britain, but not the one we live in now.

Certain aspects such as the images of workers in Bolton do carry some sense of the community and the place but in the end its the overall historical interest that lingers rather than a sense of place. It’s kind of strange to make the comparison, but thinking about this alongside The Americans it becomes apparent how important it is to have a coherent message in the photographs; otherwise they are just a bunch of historical artefacts. This speaks to the importance of intent in the photographer’s mind when shooting and selecting.

Summary

So, what have I learned by looking back over these bodies of work? There are some useful techniques that successful photo essays have adopted to help generate a ‘sense of place’ in a collection of images:

  • An outsider’s eye: it’s useful to be able to see a place objectively, maybe in a subtly (or radically) different way to the way its residents see it
  • Symbols and motifs: can help to evoke the mood of a place and reinforce the message without overtly depicting that which you’re trying to communicate
  • Focus on the small differences: the kind of images that make you look twice, or look for longer, are the ones that show something recognisable as normal life but with some kind of twist that gives an impression of the place being depicted

  1. Frank, R. 2008. The Americans. Gottingen, Germany: Steidl
  2. Parr, M. 2012. The last resort. Stockport: Dewi Lewis


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Exercise: Varying the pose – research

As suggested in the brief for the exercise ‘Varying the pose’, I’ve been looking at magazines to get a feel for the variations of pose that you can see in professional portraits. I quickly accumulated so many examples that I thought it was worth collating some here. This will help me with inspiration not just for this exercise but also for the forthcoming portrait assignment. It’s been something of an eye-opener: I hadn’t realised just how many variations there are on basic poses. I guess part of the skill of a portrait photographer (or a fashion photographer) is to breathe new life into what could be very simple client briefs.

Standing

The main variations here are around what to do with the hands. Most of these don’t use any props in hand so they have to go somewhere. Just letting them hang to the side looks very bland and static. Placing the hands in particular places can give real ‘body language’ signifiers: both hands on hips = defiant; hands in pockets = nonchalant; arms folded = defensive or impatient, etc. The other notable point of difference is the placement of the feet and related to this, the tilt of the hips. There’s a classic flattering pose of standing slightly side-on to the camera, hip first.

Sitting

The real variations here aren’t so much where to place the hands, although this is still a consideration, but what to do with the legs. Together, apart, crossed, raised, extended, tucked under. Again body language becomes evident to a degree, particularly how much the subject is leaning forwards (attentive, needy) versus backwards (relaxed, confident). Crossed legs is an interesting one, especially for men: it seems to try to look relaxed while still being quite defensive (literally).

Other

I actually found lots of examples of leaning – it seems to be a very fashionable pose at the moment. Leaning implies relaxed, and is easy to link with hands-in-pockets to solve the problem of what to do with hands. Walking is also reasonably common, effectively giving a slight variation on standing by incorporating the feeling of movement.

Lots of inspiration now!